are lungfish tetrapods

Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? The scale bar in (A) provides the magnification for (A) and (B). (2020), Frontiers in Genetics 4 17, 235–268 (1995), Schultze, H.-P. in The Biology and Evolution of Lungfishes (eds Bemis, W. E., Burggren, W. W. & Kemp, N. E.) J. Morph. Figure 7. Immunohistochemistry has revealed a noradrenergic locus coeruleus and cholinergic laterotegmental and isthmic nuclei (with their connections to the optic tectum and the forebrain) in lungfishes, as in amphibians. Actually, this region constitutes the rostral part of the rhombencephalon, and it contains a series of nuclei with different functions. Most likely, it receives mechanosensory information from the octaval and lateral line systems, as in other groups of fishes. In a position that is similar but in the caudal portion of the rhombencephalon are the somatic motoneurons whose axons form two pairs of spino-occipital nerves (Figure 3(a)) that innervate the hypobranchial muscles of the head. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 643, 100044, Beijing, China, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, 07083, USA, You can also search for this author in Lungfish do not have typical secondary vessels and in their place is a well-developed lymphatic system similar to that found in tetrapods. 103, 241–287 (1991), Cloutier, R. & Ahlberg, P. E. in Interrelationships of Fishes (eds Stiassny, M. L., Parenti, L. R. & Johnson, G. D.) 445–480 (Academic, San Diego, 1996), Meyer, A. Molecular evidence on the origin of tetrapods and the relationships of the coelacanth. This region of the brain in lungfishes is tubular in shape, and the walls are thick around a vertically oriented ventricle (Figures 2(k) and 2(l)). Their analysis is faulty. On the ontogeny and homology of the choanal tubes and choanae in Urodela. Am. The third segment of the diencephalon (anterior parencephalon) is narrow and contains distinct cell populations within a poorly differentiated ventral thalamus (or prethalamus) in the alar plate (Figure 3(e)). A third constituent of the trigeminal sensory system is formed by proprioceptive information from the extrinsic eye muscles and jaw muscles conveyed by primary fibers of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus that enter the hindbrain in the trigeminal nerve and course toward the mesencephalic tectum, where the large ganglionic somata that constitute the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus are distributed dorsally along the tectum (Figure 2(l)). E. BRUCE HOLMES, Are lungfishes the sister group of tetrapods?, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 25, Issue 4, August 1985, Pages 379–397, Little is known about octavolateralis pathways in lungfishes. ), 39–74, (1987), Ahlberg, P. E. & Johanson, Z. Osteolepiforms and the ancestry of tetrapods. Micropumps are spherical, contractile organs 35–55 μm in diameter. Hist. They also use evidence inconsistently by attributing greater significance to similarities between lungfishes and tetrapods than to even more detailed similarities between rhipidistians and tetrapods. The basal region is traditionally divided into dorsal and ventral hypothalamic parts, with respect to the infundibular ventricle (Figures 2(i), 2(j), and 3(c)–3(e)), and both contain immunohistochemically distinct cell populations that are similar to those described in amphibians (Figures 3(c)–3(e)). sp. Styloichthys from the Lower Devonian of China bridges the morphological gap between stem-group sarcopterygians (Psarolepis and Achoania)10 and basal tetrapodomorphs/basal dipnomorphs. The latter is difficult to distinguish in normal material but has been demonstrated with experimental techniques. 9, 1–17 (1989), Johanson, Z. Some of the advanced tetrapodomorph fishes acquired paired limbs with humerus-ulna-radius and femur-tibia-fibula patterns by the end of the Early DevonianOsteolepidids were a common component of most Devonian fish faunas, in many cases taking the role of top predator. Additionally, isthmic tegmental serotonergic neurons are present and the striatum contains many serotonergic fibers, suggesting an input from the serotonergic neurons (Reiner and Northcutt, 1987). The ventral portion of this segment is caudally continuous with the hypothalamic mammillary region and is called the retromammillary zone; in Protopterus, this zone shows a unique recess of the III ventricle, also called the posterior recess (Figure 2(j)). They also have a series of mechanoreceptive neuromasts and electroreceptive ampullary organs that are innervated by up to six pairs of lateral line nerves. African lungfishes, Protopterus, estivate, burrowing into mud and remaining inactive for years while waiting for rains to return. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The caudal part of the medial nucleus receives fibers of the posterior lateral line root, which enters just rostral to the glossopharyngeal root. Figure 4.6. At the level of the vagal roots, the solitary tract and nucleus are more conspicuous and form a bulge into the ventricle termed the vagal lobe. Case Studies in Deep Tetrapod Divergences, The postparietal shield of the Pragian dipnomorph Arquatichthys and its implications for the rhipidistian cranial anatomy, The paleoichthyofauna housed in the Colección Nacional de Paleontología of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Bony lesions in early tetrapods and the evolution of mineralized tissue repair. Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. Only recently have immunohistochemical data, based on specific labeling for calbindin (Figure 3(g)) and other olfactory markers, clearly indicated the existence of an accessory olfactory system, which may represent an incipiently segregated vomeronasal system in lungfishes, as exists in tetrapods. Zhu, M., Yu, X. Nature 397, 607–610 (1999), Basden, A. M. & Young, G. C. A primitive actinopterygian neurocranium from the early Devonian of southeastern Australia. Tetrapod-fish relationships need to be re-examined by means of a properly conducted cladistic analysis. Northcutt, in Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 2011. In the midline, just ventral to the trochlear nucleus, there is an interpeduncular nucleus (Figure 2(k)), which receives information from the habenula via the fasciculus retroflexus. You could not be signed in. It contains a preoptic recess of the III ventricle, and in its walls cells of the magnocellular nucleus are recognized by their content of the neurohormones vasotocin and mesotocin (Figure 3(d))., Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 35, 93–101 (1995), Zhu, M., Yu, X. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry reveals that the morphology of these motor cells is characterized by profuse dendritic arborizations (Figure 3(a)). Given that basal ganglia models in mammals involve the notion that striatal neurons must receive an excitatory input that drives them, it seems likely they do receive at least thalamic input. Part of the information carried by this tract is gustatory, coming from taste buds that are located in the oropharynx and also externally on the skin of the head. Throughout its course, fibers from the tract would contact scattered cells that, as a group, represent the descending trigeminal nucleus. A small and poorly differentiated torus semicircularis is located beneath the optic tectum and is better developed in Neoceratodus. The role of the apparent SP striato-GPi circuit in sarcopterygians is also uncertain, given the meager cortical development in this group. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Its young lack external gills. As noted above, the diencephalon comprises the caudal portion of the forebrain. Willis, in Evolution of Nervous Systems (Second Edition), 2017. J.A. Bull. This kind of sensory information ascends through the dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord and contacts cells of an incipient dorsal column nucleus located close to the obex (Figure 2(p)). Thus even vertebrates with no middle ear adaptations for aerial hearing, such as the first tetrapods, had rudimentary aerial hearing before the development of tympanic middle ears in more recent tetrapods (Christensen et al., 2015a). We thank M. M. Chang and P. E. Ahlberg for advice and discussions, K. S. Thomson for comments and corrections, M. Yang for artwork, J. Zhang for photographic work, and X. Lu for specimen preparation. Correspondence to It is likely the SP and ENK neurons of the striatal sector contain GABA as well, since the lungfish subpallium is enriched in neurons expressing GAD65 and containing GABA (González and Northcutt, 2009; González et al., 2014; Trabucchi et al., 2008). 2C, D of Reiner, A., Northcutt, R.G., 1987. Nature Ontogenetic and static allometry in the skull and cranial units of nine-banded armadillos (Cingulata: Dasypodidae: Intraspecific variation in a lizard from the Central Mexican Plateau: intersexual differences in size and shape explored, A review of transition zones in biogeographical classification. Searching for the closest living relative(s) of tetrapods through evolutionary analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data. It comprises a pair of large auriculae that possess upper and lower leaves, the latter in continuation with the octavolateral area. It should be noted that lungfishes, as do chondrichthyans, possess a large dopaminergic cell group in the midbrain tegmentum that is readily comparable to the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental cell groups in amniotes. X.Y. At least part of it was proposed to be a homolog to the isthmic nucleus of other vertebrates, but its lack of cholinergic cells does not support this contention. Images (A) and (B) show frontal views of sections through the right telencephalon of the African lungfish stained for Nissl substance (A) and immunolabeled for SP (B). However, because this set of muscles has been demonstrated to arise from paraxial mesoderm, the hindbrain motor centers that innervate them are better considered special motor centers. Trends Ecol. The rest of the preoptic area is comprised of small cells that form subgroups, distinguished only by immunohistochemistry, such as that for specific calcium-binding proteins (Figures 3(c) and 3(d)). volume 418, pages767–770(2002)Cite this article. The structures in the medial wall located ventral to this ependymal membrane in Neoceratodus and most of the thick medial wall in Protopterus and Lepidosiren have been believed by some researchers to be homologous to the septum in other vertebrates. J. Vert. & Ahlberg, P. E. A complete primitive rhizodont from Australia. Its nature and function are unknown. Mus. The Braincase of Youngolepis, a Lower Devonian Crossopterygian from Yunnan, South-western China Thesis, Stockholm Univ. The dopaminergic input seems likely to arise from midbrain dopaminergic neurons (Fig. In lungfishes, as in most vertebrates, fibers carrying touch information would terminate in the principal sensory nucleus, located dorsolateral to the trigeminal motor nucleus. Genomic differentiation in an endemic Philippine genus (Aves: About Biological Journal of the Linnean Society,, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 The Linnean Society of London.

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