acid than S. cremoris and L. lactis. are handled in the same manner as the yogurt culture. Vitamin K2 refers to a group of menaquinones (MKs) varying in side chain length. Lactococcus lactis Lactococcus is a genus of of LAB with five major species formerly classified as Group N streptococci.
After heat treatment, the milk to produce yogurt is cooled to the inoculation of the cultures: At 30 °C before inoculation of the starter culture consisting of one or more of the following species: Lactococcus lactis subsp. 2014;172:1347–57. Other compounds that are present at low concentrations and favor the development of flavor are lactic acid and diacetyl. These are important food supplies for many people, so extensive research has been done on the microorganism’s metabolic pathway to increase its efficiency for dairy production. Different forms of MKs are written as MK-n, where n indicates the number of isoprenoid residues in its side chain .
They also are aciduric with an optimum growth pH of 5.5–5.8; in general, they can grow at a pH <5. We concluded that vitamin K2 production is already significantly affected when a single factor among temperature, carbon source, aeration and mode of metabolism, is changed.
Berenjian A, Mahanama R, Talbot A, Biffin R, Regtop H, Valtchev P, et al. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health . Strain MG1363 was cultivated in GM17 at 30 °C for 48 h. For static fermentation, full tubes of cultures were statically incubated. b Fold changes in titres with respect to the control group (static fermentation). 2009;19:504–10. lactis strains FM03, FM04, DSM20481, L. lactis ssp. cremoris MG1363 was cultivated at different temperatures and the MK levels and forms were measured (Fig.
optimum growth temperature. Biochim Biophys Acta. Am J Biochem Biotechnol.
Production of long-chain vitamin K2 has been observed in a variety of bacteria involved in well-known food fermentation processes, and the specific structure of menaquinones produced by these bacteria has been determined [3, 15]. Some bacteria reduce acetaldehyde to ethanol and others do not. The effect of degree of aeration on vitamin K2 production was further examined by cultivating bacteria at different shaking speeds. The enzyme catalyzing the utilization of threonine is threonine aldolase (l-threonine acetaldehyde-lyase, EC 220.127.116.11) and pyridoxal phosphate is required as cofactor. The main dietary sources of long-chain MKs are fermented foods [3, 4]. Therefore, the effect of aerobic fermentation and aerobic respiration on vitamin K2 production was found to be carbon source-dependent. Hojo K, Watanabe R, Mori T, Taketomo N. Quantitative measurement of tetrahydromenaquinone-9 in cheese fermented by propionibacteria. There are three Lc.
a Specific concentrations of total vitamin K2. 1 that L. lactis 18, 20 and 22 strains showed rapid growth at 37°C and slow growth at 40°C and 43°C except strain 23 that showed maximum growth at 40°C as shown in Fig. Concordance between these various classification schemes never can be realized, and different classification schemes, tailored to the particular problem, probably should be tolerated. Pedersen MB, Garrigues C, Tuphile K, Brun C, Vido K, Bennedsen M, Møllgaard H, Gaudu P, Gruss A.
cremoris. An extraction buffer was made with n-hexane and 2-peopanol at ratio 2:1 (v/v).
in L. acidophilus that these strains have optimum growth at 37°C cremoris MG1363. The multiplying process begins when the bacterium enters the gastrointestinal tract of the animal.
Specific growth rate of L. lactis ssp. Cultures: Bacterial strains were isolated and identified from camel milk in our previous study. This could globally explain why the amount of vitamin K2 production in L. lactis responded to aeration as well as respiration in a carbon source-dependent manner. survival after freezing. In this study, we demonstrated a large species and strain diversity in LAB for vitamin K2 producing capacity. Moreover, the presence of oxygen alone has impact on metabolism by altering the balance of redox cofactors, as well as expression and activity of key enzymes . high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Growth on citrate is a classical means of distinguishing enteric organisms (Koser, 1924). cremoris strains MG1363, YL11, YL12 and Lc. Except for the strain screening experiment, vitamin K1 was added at a concentration of 300 ng/ml as an internal standard in each sample. The genus Lactobacillus is quite diverse and consists of a number of different species with little commonality.
hourly intervals. Evidence for three systems was presented: one induced by all three tricarboxylates but transporting only citrate and isocitrate) this is conceptually difficult to imagine unless it is an extreme example of “induction from without”); one induced by all three tricarboxylates and also transporting cis-aconitate but dependent on Mg2+ and evident at pH 8.6 but not pH 7; and a third induced by citrate and specific for citrate transport. Uptake required induction (by citrate) and was shown to be sensitive to arsenate and to 2,4-dinitrophenol.
Br J Nutr.
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