This image shows the bandpass wavelengths for the sensors on all Landsat satellites. Since 1972, Landsat satellites have continuously acquired space-based images of the Earth’s land surface, providing data that serve as valuable resources for land use/land change research. The slot for the proposed mission was first assigned to a dedicated Space Shuttle flight for the Deprtment of Defense before the idea of launching the Space Shuttle from Vandenberg AFB were scrapped altogether after the Challenger disaster. Rendering of the Landsat 4 and Landsat 5 satellites. Landsat 4 science operations ended on December 14, 1993 when the satellite lost its ability to transmit science data, far beyond its designed life expectancy of five years. EE supports the searching of satellite, aircraft, and other remote sensing inventories through interactive and textual-based query capabilities. Landsat 4 operations were contracted out to the Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT) corporation in 1984. Like previous missions, the Landsat 4 satellite orbited the the Earth in a sun-synchronous, near-polar orbit, but flew at a lower altitude of 705 km (438 mi), inclined at 98.2 degrees, and circled the Earth every 99 minutes. "New EROS satellite launched successfully", "The Landsat Program – History – Landsat 4", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Landsat_4&oldid=977380830, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 September 2020, at 14:08. The data are useful to a number of applications including forestry, agriculture, geology, regional planning, and education.
 Landsat 3, launched in 1978, was the last satellite to have a similar design to Landsat 1, and was the last Landsat to be managed by NASA during the Landsat program.  Landsat 4 was placed into a north-south near polar orbit, approximately 700 kilometers (430 mi) above Earth's surface, and circling the globe every 99 minutes.  Landsat 2 had a similar design, and was launched three years later. Like previous missions, the Landsat 4 satellite orbited the the Earth in a sun-synchronous, near-polar orbit, but flew at a lower altitude of 705 km (438 mi), inclined at 98.2 degrees, and circled the Earth every 99 minutes. Launch Date: July 16 , 1982; Status: decommissioned, June 15, 2001; Sensors: TM, MSS Altitude: 705 km; Inclination: 98.2° Orbit: polar, sun-synchronous The Details. Visit Landsat 1-5 MSS for more information. The USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis) is an online search and order tool for selected remote sensing data.
, In February 1983, the satellite lost half of its solar power and the ability to send science data directly to Earth, prompting fears the satellite would fail sooner than expected.  The satellite took over 100,000 images of the Earth over the course of its life.
Landsat 1, then known as ERTA-A, was launched July 23, 1972. New and previously unimaginable Landsat applications have been fostered by a policy change in 2008 that made analysis-ready Landsat data free and open access. , Landsat 4 was able to resume science operations when the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRS) came online, then was placed in standby in January 1986. The Landsat 4 TM instrument had seven spectral bands. Initially, the system was operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States, and in 1983 was transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Rendering of the Landsat 4 and Landsat 5 satellites. Later on, the idea to retrieve Landsat 4 were first replaced by a servicing mission in early 1987, before any mention of it was removed from the flight manifest published in June 1985. 1.2, April 2020): U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2015–3081, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20153081.  Landsat 4 was the first Landsat to be operated by NOAA. Bands 1–5 and 7 each have a spatial resolution of 30 meters (98 ft) while the MSS is only capable of a 57 meters (187 ft) by 79 meters (259 ft) resolution. It was powered by three nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd), which were charged via a single solar array that had one axis of articulation.
About Landsat 4 (MSS) The LANDSAT project commenced in 1972 with the launch of the Landsat 1 spacecraft.  Landsat 4 was brought back online to provide international coverage in 1987, when Landsat 5 lost its TDRS link, and thus the ability to image areas beyond line of sight to a ground station, and continued to do so until it, too, lost its TDRS link in 1993, ending science data return.  The spacecraft was three-axis stabilized with reaction wheels. The 1982 edition of the STS Flight Assignement Manifest scheduled the second Space Shuttle mission from Vandenberg AFB for that task. The Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery was scheduled to launch on 15 June 1986 for a three day mission to capture Landsat 4 for return to earth (designated STS-2V). The satellite had a 16-day repeat cycle with an equatorial crossing time: 9:45 a.m. +/- 15 minutes. The high gain Ku antenna was commanded to deploy but failed. Landsat 1 • Landsat 2 • Landsat 3 • Landsat 4 • Landsat 5 • Landsat 6 • Landsat 7 • Landsat 8. , The spacecraft was built by GE Astro Space, who would later become Lockheed Martin Missile and Space.
The spacecraft was built by GE Astro Space, who would later become Lockheed Martin Missile and Space. Landsat data is in 8-bit (0-255) format. Data was collected from the blue, green, red, near-infrared, mid-infrared (2 bands) and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition to having three more bands of data to work with, scientists are able to view the TM data at a much higher resolution than with MSS. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984.
The EarthExplorer (EE) user interface is an online search, discovery, and ordering tool developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Visit Landsat 4-5 TM for more information. The lower altitude results in a different swathing pattern, and Landsat 4 data were acquired on the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2) path/row system, with swath overlap (or sidelap) varying from 7 percent at the Equator to a maximum of approximately 85 percent at extreme latitudes. The Landsat 4 spacecraft was significantly different than that of the previous Landsats, and Landsat 4 did not carry the RBV instrument. *Landsat MSS = the numbers shown are for Landsat 4 and Landsat 5; Landsat 1-3 band numbers are 4, 5, 6 and 7. Approximate scene size is 170 … The TM's improved spectral and spatial resolution allowed the instrument to see the ground in greater detail and included a thermal band. So, the downlink of data was not possible until the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) became operational: Landsat 4 could then transmit data to TDRSS using its Ku-band transmitter and TDRSS could then relay that information to its ground stations.
Attempts to free the antenna were successful on August 15. Although they were in lower orbits, they had a higher field of view (FOV) so they had the same swath widths. Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images consist of seven spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 meters for Bands 1 to 5 and 7.Spatial resolution for Band 6 (thermal infrared) is 120 meters, but is resampled to 30-meter pixels. Landsat 4 was kept in orbit for housekeeping telemetry command and tracking data (which it downlinked via a separate data path, the S-band) until it was decommissioned in 2001. , Landsat 4 was the first satellite in the Landsat program to incorporate the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor.  Landsat 4 continued to broadcast telemetry, tracking, and command data, which was transmitted on the still-functional S-band, until the satellite was decommissioned June 15, 2001..
Although the satellite was in a lower orbit, it had a higher field of view (FOV) to retain the same swath width of 185 km (115 miles). , Landsat 4 carried an updated Multispectral Scanner (MSS), used on previous Landsat satellites, and a Thematic Mapper. Would the difference between the sets of visible-NIR bands for Landsat 4,5, and 7 vary significantly?  The satellite weighed 4,300 pounds (2,000 kg). This new instrument was known as the Thematic Mapper (TM). It had a reflective resolution of 30 meters (98 ft) and a thermal resolution of 120 meters (390 ft).
, The satellite communicated to the ground with a direct downlink with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) at 85 Mbit/s on the S-, X-, L-, and Ku-bands. It was launched on July 16, 1982, with the primary goal of providing a global archive of satellite imagery. Landsat 4 was designed to last a minimum of three years. About Landsat 4 (TM) In addition to the MSS sensor, Landsat 4 carried a new …  This caused the early launch of Landsat 5, a satellite that was identical in specification to Landsat 4.
The new Landsat spacecraft also featured improved instrumentation. In addition to the Multispectral Scanner System instrument, Landsat 4 (and Landsat 5) carried a sensor with improved spectral and spatial resolution, i.e.
The Landsat TM sensor is able to gather seven bands of data as opposed to the four bands of data collected from the Multispectral Scanner. As early as 1982, a mission was in the planning stages to retrieve Landsat 4 for servicing back on earth. The solar array produced 1430 W of power. Despite the numerous transfers of satellite operation, the USGS has remained responsible for long-term preservation of Landsat data in its National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This continued until 1993, when this last remaining science data downlink capability failed on Landsat 4. The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. Bien que le programme Landsat soit géré par la NASA, les données de Landsat 4 sont collectées et distribuées par l'Institut d'études géologiques des États-Unis (USGS). It used the MultiMission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) bus developed by Fairchild Industries.  The data used 8 bit quantization. It was expected that the shuttles would be able to reach Landsat's relatively far orbit by 1985.
Landsat 4 was built and launched by NASA, NOAA initially oversaw the operations of the satellite. Landsat 4 was launched on July 16, 1982.
The MSS sensor on Landsat 4 was identical to Landsats 1, 2 and 3. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. The following year, the mission was rescheduled to launch on 01 April 1986. The high gain antenna was extended with a retractable boom.
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