Thanks to the lack of a strong bourgeois class within the population of the Empire, however, Enlightenment did not spring up from below as it did in France. Having used her own flesh and blood to prove the efficacy of the then-unpopular concept, she began to expand the use of vaccination further, going so far as to host a dinner at her Schönbrunn Palace for the first group of children to be vaccinated. ): Maria Theresa in mourning, oil painting, c. 1772, Circle of Martin van Meytens: Maria Theresa as Queen of Hungary, oil painting, c. 1745, Letter written in Latin with the autograph signature of Maria Theresa, 1777. 13 May 1888 saw the unveiling of a large monument situated between the two Court Museums as part of the Ringstrasse... Leidinger, Hannes/Moritz, Verena/Schippler, Berndt: Schwarzbuch der Habsburger. The abolition of torture in 1776 was likewise by no means a result of humanitarian concern on Maria Theresa’s part. Unlike his mother, he even opted to halt the use of capital punishment. The classic form of representing these relationships is the genealogical table or family tree. Details on the individual cookies can be found under “Cookie settings”. She also made provisions for the increasing of medical knowledge, creating a law that made autopsies mandatory for all hospital deaths in the city of Graz – a mandate that produced one of the most thorough records in all of Europe. Reflecting on the lack of Habsburg males as a reason for triggering the Prussian invasion of Silesia, she determined from the outset that the Habsburg family would never again be short of offspring. For the sake of efficiency, he created a system by which the bodies of the dead were put in mass graves, rather than taking the amount of space and effort that individual graves required. Parsons, Nicholas: “Vienna: A Cultural History”
Though Joseph II is rather famous for having attempted far grander reforms than his mother, there was one area in which he left her changes largely untouched: education. She argued that religious freedom was something that “no Catholic prince can permit without heavy responsibility,” and, by and large, wanted little to do with the regulation of the church. The Habsburg dynasty: Here you can read potted biographies, examine portraits from seven centuries and dip into the historical contexts of past epochs. These reforms were by no means designed with the intention of raising children to become politically mature citizens – the pupils were to be schooled in their obligation to serve and obey God and their rulers. She argued that religious freedom was something that “no Catholic prince can permit without heavy responsibility,” and, by and large, wanted little to do with the regulation of the church.14 Her sole aim, with regard to the Church, was to ensure the “primacy of government control in Church-state relations.”15 The map shows the territorial development of the Habsburg Monarchy as it evolved into a sprawling, geographically fragmented empire.
The man behind the reform was Johann Ignaz von Felbiger, invited to Vienna by Maria Theresa from Prussia. The peasantry was endowed with freedom of movement, the ability to marry without the explicit approval of their liege lord, and freedom to choose their own occupation – though what was granted on paper and what was granted in effect were different.
With regard to the infantry, the need for reform was far more pressing. Rickett, Richard: “A Brief Survey of Austrian History”, Your email address will not be published.
Also notably absent from the list of rights granted to the peasants was freedom from personal service to their liege lord – it was Maria Theresia’s opinion that doing so would lead to the complete dissolution of the lord/subject relationship, eventually causing a complete slide into anarchy.2
She was quite vehement in ensuring that it would take effect, as well: those who resisted the new system were arrested. Nevertheless, there were times when Habsburg rule was disputed. It is said that Maria Theresa carried out many major reforms. The legal and administrative reforms are regarded as modern because they created the foundation for an authoritarian administrative state. Joseph II stands in contrast to her restraint towards ecclesiastical affairs.
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