The vehicle is based on the IMS-2 Small Satellite Bus weighing about 409 Kilograms at launch. ARGOS contributes to the development and operational implementation of the global ARGOS Data Collection System. A total of 50 beacons are installed all over the world to allow continuous orbital tracking. The Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the Government of India and has its headquarters in the city of Bangalore. Sapphire was constructed by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA) based on an SSTL-150 bus produced by Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL) and an optical payload produced by COM DEV International. It will also observe the polar oceans, study wave fields and sea ice, and examine marine biogeochemistry. The use of the Ka-band frequency will supply more accurate measurements (improvement of the spatial and vertical resolution) enabling a better observation of ices, coastal areas, continental water bodies as well as the waves height. SARAL data products will be useful for operational as well as research user communities in many fields like . ALTIKA_SARAL_L2_OST_XOGDR; Description: These data are near-real-time (NRT) (within 7-9 hours of measurement) sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) from the AltiKa altimeter onboard the Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa (SARAL). The Laser Retroreflector Array instrument is used for calibration of other Precise Orbit Determination instruments by shooting a laser from the ground with its beam being reflected by the LRA mirrors. SARAL will also measure the main continental water level and sea level variations. Programme description: Single-satellite experimental programme, for ocean observation. The ground system infrastructure of the system is fairly simple as it only requires beacon transmitters that do not need to receive any data as the DORIS payload on the satellite is responsible for orbit determination and data storage/relay. In the world's oceans, SWOT will observe ocean circulation at unprecedented scales of 15-25 km, approximately an order of magnitude finer than current satellites. The first mission of IMS-2 is SARAL. An Isro (Indian Space Research Organization) satellite, Saral (Satellite with ARgos and ALtika), will embark the AltiKa altimeter (working in Ka-band, 35 GHz), built by Cnes, as well as a Doris instrument. Measuring meso-scale dynamics is essential for understanding ocean dynamics, circulation and climatic effects. The National Centre for Space Studies (CNES) is the French government space agency. IMS-2 development is an important milestone as it is envisaged to be a work horse for different types of remote sensing applications. The Level-2 products from this mission comprise a family of nine different types of geophysical data records (GDRs). ALTIKA gets around this problem by operating at a high frequency in Ka band.
The satellites' mission is to supply data for scientific, commercial, and practical applications to sea level rise, sea surface temperature, ocean temperature circulation, and climate change. the satellite will also be operated by those two agencies.
It is a continuation of such support provided by C-Band Transponders flown in the earlier IRS-P3 and IRS-P5 missions. The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established by Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in 1962, with the urging of scientist Vikram Sarabhai recognising the need in space research. Another advantage of operating at higher frequencies is greater accuracy.
DORIS – Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite – is a French system used for precise Satellite Orbit Determination and Positioning. Because it uses wide-swath altimetry technology, SWOT will almost completely observe the world's oceans and freshwater bodies with repeated high-resolution elevation measurements, allowing observations of variations. SARAL/AltiKa mission belongs to the global altimetry system and then participates to the precise and accurate observations of ocean circulation and sea surface elevation for its life time. Chandrayaan-1 was the first Indian lunar probe under Chandrayaan program.  , The SARAL mission is complementary to the Jason-2 mission of NASA/NOAA and CNES/EUMETSAT. The satellite has an expected lifetime of 7 years. An artist's rendering of Satellite with ARgos and ALtika - SARAL, Launches are separated by dashes ( – ), payloads by dots (, https://www.ursc.gov.in/earth-observation/html/saral-1.jsp, "Proposals Sought For Studying India-French Satellite Data", "ISRO successfully launches Indo-French satellite 'SARAL, "India successfully launches Indo-French, 6 foreign satellites", "GP - ALTIKA - Call for proposals until 15 February - CNES", List of Satish Dhawan Space Centre launches, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems (LEOS), National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU), Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN–SPACe), ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), ISRO Satellite Integration and Testing Establishment (ISITE), Marine meteorology and sea state forecasting, Management and protection of marine ecosystem. SARAL features four payloads, the AltiKa altimeter, DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite), a Laser Reflector Array and the ARGOS-3 system (Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite). Radar altimetry by satellite is a technique used in oceanography to measure, globally over the oceans, the sea level needed to understand ocean circulation and its variability. . AltiKa will provide ocean surface topography measurements with an accuracy of 8 millimeters at a spatial resolution of 2 Kilometers. The effect of atmospheric drag was such that by fall 1986 GEOSAT was in an almost exact 23-day repeat orbit. The satellite features two 1.2 by 1.4-meter solar arrays that deploy once in orbit for a total power generation of 570 watts. By ensuring the observations continuity and widening the observation areas, CNES answers the wish of the oceanography community by bringing a description: For the meso-scale in open ocean,, In coastal areas, For the seasonal forecast, For the hydrology, For the climate studies.
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